A importância dos novos autoanticorpos específicos da dermatomiosite

Joana Calvão, Alexandre Rafael Isidoro Azeiteiro, Margarida Gonçalo

Abstract


A dermatomiosite é uma miopatia inflamatória idiopática, rara, com manifestações cutâneas e sistémicas variadas. Mais de 70% dos doentes apresentam autoanticorpos específicos da doença, que se correlacionam com manifestações clínicas distintas. Além dos anticorpos anti-sintetase, nos últimos anos foram descobertos vários anticorpos associados à dermatomiosite e que parecem ter um papel importante na orientação diagnóstica e prognóstica da doença, incluindo os autoanticorpos contra melanoma differentiation antigen 5 (MDA5), transcriptional intermediary factor 1 (TIF1), nuclear matrix protein 2 (NXP2), small ubiquitin-like modifier activating enzyme (SAE) e os anti-Mi2. O autoanticorpo anti-MDA5 está associado a dermatomiosite amiopática e doença intersticial pulmonar rapidamente progressiva e potencialmente fatal, além de caraterísticas mucocutâneas distintas, como ulceração cutânea. Há uma forte correlação entre a positividade para os autoanticorpos anti-TIF-1γ e malignidade, pelo menos na dermatomiosite do adulto. Na dermatomiosite juvenil, estes autoanticorpos têm sido associados a doença cutânea mais extensa, mas não a malignidade. A positividade para anti-NXP2 está associada a calcinose cutânea e envolvimento muscular severos. Na dermatomiosite com autoanticorpos anti-SAE há frequentemente envolvimento cutâneo e disfagia severos, mas com boa resposta à terapêutica imunossupressora e bom prognóstico. Os anticorpos anti-Mi2 associam- -se igualmente a um bom prognóstico.


Keywords


Autoanticorpos; Dermatomiosite

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.29021/spdv.77.1.1021

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