History of Dermatoscopy

  • María Victoria Guiote Domínguez Assistente Hospitalar de Dermatologia/Consultant of Dermatology and Venereology, Centro Hospitalar de Leiria (CHL); Doctorada pela Facultade de Medicina de Granada, Espanha
  • Katarina Kieselová Médica Interna de Dermatovenereologia /Resident of Dermatology and Venereology, Serviço de Dermatologia do CHL Serviço de Dermatologia do Centro Hospitalar Santo André, Leiria, Portugal
Keywords: Dermoscopy, history


The curiosity and the interest for knowing what is beyond the human eye led to the birth of dermoscopy. Despite the fact that the wide use of dermoscopy is relatively recent, several documents that reflect different approaches to this technique can be found since the XVI century. These attempts represent not only a great progress to dermoscopy, but also allowed the development of other techniques such as capillaroscopy, currently used in the study of autoimmune diseases, trichoscopy, applied at the beginning for the early diagnosis of cretinism and afterwards used for several indications and, finally, colposcopy, useful for the study of cervix disorders in gynaecology. Ultimately, the optical properties of the epidermis and the development of magnification optical devices allowed to visualize skin lesions in vivo and are the cornerstones of the current dermoscopic technique.


Download data is not yet available.


ReferênciasBorel CP. Centre International de synthèse. Revue Histoire ScieLeur Application. 1968;303-43.

López Pérez M, Kahn D,Chymia: Science and nature in medieval and early modern Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing; 2010.

Guillaume, Manfredi: Capilaroscopia. Rev Ibero-Americana Cie Méd. 1924;234:150-7.

Zeiss C. Mikroscope und Nebenapparate-Ausgabe 1934. Jena:Carl Zeiss;1934.

Diepgen P. Geschichte der Medizin. Berlin: de Gruyter;1965.

Hueter C. Die Cheilangioskopie, eine neuenUntersuchungsmethode zu physiologischen und pathologischen Zwecken. Centralb Med Wissensch. 1879;13:225-7.

Hoegl L, Stolz W, Braun-Falco O. Historische Untersuchungsmethode zu physiologischen und pathologischen Zwecken. Centralb Med Wissensch. 1879;13:225-7.

Unna P. Die Diaskopie der Hautkrankhiten. Berl Klin Wochenschau. 1893;42:1016-21.

Unna P. Uber das Pigment des Pigment der menschlichen Haut. Monatsh Prakt Dermatol. 1885;6:277-94.

Lombard W. The blood pressure in the arterioles. Am J Physiol. 1912;29:332-62.

Prost GA. Enfermedades de la piel. Barcelona: Labor Ed;1928.

Muller O. Die Kapillaren der menschlichen korperoberflache in gesuden und kranken tagen. Stuttgart: Enke;1922.

Shur H, Mikroskopische Hautstudien am Lebenden. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1919; 50:1201-3.

Weiss E. Beobachtung und makrophotographische Darstellung der Hautkapillaren am lebenden Menschen. Deutsch Arch Klin Med. 1916; 119:1-38.

Jaensch W. Die Hautkpillarmikroskopie. Halle:Marhold; 1929.

Gilje O, O’Leary PA, Baldes EY. Capillary microscopic examination in skin disease. Arch Dermatol. 1958:68:136-45.

Muller O. Die feinsten blutgefasse des menschen in gesunden und kranken tagen: Zur normalen anatomie und physiologie sowie allgemeinen pathologie des feinsten gefassabschnittes beim menscen. Stuttgart:Enkeverlag;1937.

Muller O. Pathologie des capillaries humains. J Physiol Pathol Gen. 1941:38:52-62.

Stolz W, Braun-Falco O, Semmelmayer U yy Kopf AW. History of skin surface microscopy and dermoscopy. In: Marghoob A, Braun RP, Kopf AW, editors. Atlas of Dermoscopy. Abingdon: Taylor and Francis Group;2004. p.1-4.

Bettmann S. Felderungszichnungen der Bauchhaut und Schwangerschaftsstreifen. Zschr Anatom Entwicklungsgesch. 1928; 85:658-87.

Saphier J. Die Dermatoskopie, I. Mitteilung. Arch Dermatol Syph. 1921; 128:1-19.

Saphier J. Die Dermatoskopie, II. Mitteilung. Arch Dermatol Syph. 1921; 132:69-86.

Saphier J. Die Dermatoskopie, III. Mitteilung. Arch Dermatol Syph. 1921; 134: 14-322.

Saphier J. Die Dermatoskopie, IV. Mitteilung. Arch Dermatol Syph. 1921; 136:149-58.

Hinselmann H. Die Bedeutung der kolposkopie fur den dermatologen. Dermatol Wochenschr. 1933; 96:533-43.

Goldman L. Some investigative studies of pigmented nevi with cutaneous nevi with cutaneous microscopy. J Invest Dermatol. 1951; 16:407-26.

Goldman L. Clinical studies in microscopy of the skin at moderate magnification. Arch Dermatol. 1957;75:345-60.

Goldman L. A simple portable skin microscope for surface microscopy. Arch Dermatol. 1958; 78:246-7.

Goldman L. Direct microscopy of skin in vivo as a diagnostic aid and research tool. J Dermatol Surg Oncol. 1980; 6:744-9.

Ehring F. Geschichte und Moglickeiten einer Histologie an der lebenden Haut. Hautarzt. 1958; 9:1-4.

Mackie RM. An aid to the preoperative assessment of pigmented lesions of the skin. Br J Dermatol. 1971;85:232-8.

Fritsch P, Pechlaner R. Differentiation of benign from malignant melanocytic lesions using incident light microscopy. In: Ackerman AB, Mihara I, editors. Pathology of malignant melanoma. Paris: Masson; 1981.p.301-12.

Kopf A. Prevention and early detection of skin cancer/melanoma. Cancer. 1988; 62:1791-5.

Kopf A, Elbaum M, Provost N. The use of dermoscopy and digital imaging in the diagnosis of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Skin Res Technol. 1997; 3:1-7.

Kopf A, Gross DF, Rogers GS, Rigel DS, Hellmam LJ, Levenstein M, et al. Prognostic index for malignant melanoma. Cancer. 1987; 59:1236-41.

Stolz W, Braun-Falco O, Semmelmayer U yy Kopf AW. History of skin surface microscopy and dermoscopy. In: Marghoob A, Braun RP, Kopf AW, editors. Atlas of Dermoscopy. Abingdon : Taylor and Francis Group; 2004. p.1-4.

Friedman R, Rigel DS, Kopf AW. Early detection of malignant melanoma: the role of physician examination and self-examination of the skin. Cancer CA. 1985;


Ackerman AB. Dermatoscopy,not dermoscopy! J Am Acad Dermatol 2006; 55:728.

Kreusch J, Rassner G. Das auflichtmikroskopie Bild lentiginoser junktionsnavi. Hauzart. 1990; 41:274-6.

Braun-Falco O, Stolz W, Bilek P, Merkle T, Landthaler M. Das Dermatoskop. Eine Veeinfachung der Auflichtmikroskopie von pigmentierten Hautveranderungen. Hautarzt. 1990; 41:131-6.

Stolz W, Bilek P, Landthaler M, Merkle T, Braun-Falco O. Skin surface microscopy, Lancet. 1989;2:864-5.

Pehamberger H, Steiner A, Wolff K. In vivo epiluminiscence microscopy of pigmented skin lesions. I. Pattern analysis of skin lesions. J Am Acad Dermatol .1987; 17:571-58.3.

Stolz W, Riemann A, Cognetta AB. ABCD rule of dermatoscopy:a new practical method for early recognition of malignant melanoma. Eur J Dermatol. 1994; 4:521-7.

Menzies S, Ingvar C, Mc Carthy W. A sensitivity and specificity analysis of the surface microscopy features of invasive melanoma. Melanoma Res. 1996;6:55-62.

Argenziano G, Fabbrocini G, Carli P, De Giorgi V, Sammarco E, Delfino M. Epiluminescence microscopy for the diagnosis of doubtful melanocytic skin lesions. Comparison of the ABCD rule of dermatoscopy and a new 7-point checklist based on pattern analysis. Arch Dermatol. 1998;134:1563-70.

Bafounta M, Beauchet A, Aegerter P, Saiag P. Is dermatoscopy useful for the diagnosis of melanoma? Results of meta-analysis using techniques adapted to the evaluation of the diagnostic tests. Arch Dermatol. 2001;137:1343-50.

Soyer HP, Argenziano G, Zalaudek I, Corona R, Sera F, Talamini R, et al. Three-point of dermoscopy. A new screening method for early detection of melanoma. Dermatology. 2004; 208:27-31.

Bahamer FA, Fritsch J, Kreusch J, Pehamberger H, Rohrer C, Schindera I, et al. Terminology in surface microscopy Consensus meeting of the Comiteee on Analytical

Morphology of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Dermatologische Forschung, Federal Republic of Germany, Nov,1989. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1990; 23:1159-62.

Argenziano G, Soyer HP, Chimenti S, Talamini R, Corona R, Sera F, et al. Dermoscopy of pigmented skin lesions: results of a consensus meeting via the Internet. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003; 48:679-93.

Dermoscopy [accessed April 2015] Available at:http://www.dermoscopy-org.com

Cascinelli N, Ferrario M, Tonelli T, Leo E. A possible new tool for clinical diagnosis of melanoma:the computer. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1987; 16:361-7.

How to Cite
Guiote Domínguez, M. V., & Kieselová, K. (2016). History of Dermatoscopy. Journal of the Portuguese Society of Dermatology and Venereology, 74(2), 117-122. https://doi.org/10.29021/spdv.74.2.547
History of Dermatology