HIV Infection: Epidemiology, Natural History and Diagnosis

  • Diva Trigo Interna de formação específica em Infecciologia/Resident in Infectious Diseases, Hospital Professor Doutor Fernando Fonseca, Lisboa, Portugal
  • João Borges da Costa Assistente Hospitalar de Dermatologia e Venereologia/Consultant, Dermatology and Venereology; Professor Auxiliar Convidado de Dermatologia e Venereologia/Associated Professor, Dermatology and Venereology, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa; Professor Auxiliar Convidado de Microbiologia/Professor, Microbiology, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical de Lisboa, Portugal
Keywords: Clinical Laboratory Techniques, HIV-1, HIV-2, HIV Infections/diagnosis, HIV HIV Infections/epidemiology, Immunoassay, Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques


In the last 35 years, major progresses have been accomplished in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of HIV infection, with reduction of the incidence of infection in Portugal, in the last decade. Nevertheless, there is still a high rate of late diagnosis, with individual and populational adverse outcomes. This paper aims to: present the current situation of HIV infection in Portugal, briefly review the natural course of HIV infection and exhibit the most recent HIV laboratory diagnostic testing algorithm, reviewed in 2014, strengthening the need of maintaining a high grade of clinical suspicion for early diagnosis of infection.


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How to Cite
Trigo, D., & Borges da Costa, J. (2016). HIV Infection: Epidemiology, Natural History and Diagnosis. Journal of the Portuguese Society of Dermatology and Venereology, 74(4), 371-374.
Grupo para o Estudo e Investigação das Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis (GEIDS